dplyr

Remarks

dplyr is an iteration of plyr that provides a flexible "verb" based functions to manipulate data in R. The latest version of dplyr can be downloaded from CRAN using

install.package("dplyr")

The key object in dplyr is a tbl, a representation of a tabular data structure. Currently dplyr (version 0.5.0) supports:

  • data frames
  • data tables
  • SQLite
  • PostgreSQL/Redshift
  • MySQL/MariaDB
  • Bigquery
  • MonetDB
  • data cubes with arrays (partial implementation)

Aggregating with %>% (pipe) operator

The pipe (%>%) operator could be used in combination with dplyr functions. In this example we use the mtcars dataset (see help("mtcars") for more information) to show how to sumarize a data frame, and to add variables to the data with the result of the application of a function.

library(dplyr)
library(magrittr)
df <- mtcars
df$cars <- rownames(df) #just add the cars names to the df
df <- df[,c(ncol(df),1:(ncol(df)-1))] # and place the names in the first column

1. Sumarize the data

To compute statistics we use summarize and the appropriate functions. In this case n() is used for counting the number of cases.

 df %>%
  summarize(count=n(),mean_mpg = mean(mpg, na.rm = TRUE),
            min_weight = min(wt),max_weight = max(wt))

#  count mean_mpg min_weight max_weight
#1    32 20.09062      1.513      5.424

2. Compute statistics by group

It is possible to compute the statistics by groups of the data. In this case by Number of cylinders and Number of forward gears

df %>%
  group_by(cyl, gear) %>%
  summarize(count=n(),mean_mpg = mean(mpg, na.rm = TRUE),
            min_weight = min(wt),max_weight = max(wt))

# Source: local data frame [8 x 6]
# Groups: cyl [?]
#
#    cyl  gear count mean_mpg min_weight max_weight
#  <dbl> <dbl> <int>    <dbl>      <dbl>      <dbl>
#1     4     3     1   21.500      2.465      2.465
#2     4     4     8   26.925      1.615      3.190
#3     4     5     2   28.200      1.513      2.140
#4     6     3     2   19.750      3.215      3.460
#5     6     4     4   19.750      2.620      3.440
#6     6     5     1   19.700      2.770      2.770
#7     8     3    12   15.050      3.435      5.424
#8     8     5     2   15.400      3.170      3.570

dplyr's single table verbs

dplyr introduces a grammar of data manipulation in R. It provides a consistent interface to work with data no matter where it is stored: data.frame, data.table, or a database. The key pieces of dplyr are written using Rcpp, which makes it very fast for working with in-memory data.

dplyr's philosophy is to have small functions that do one thing well. The five simple functions (filter, arrange, select, mutate, and summarise) can be used to reveal new ways to describe data. When combined with group_by, these functions can be used to calculate group wise summary statistics.

Syntax commonalities

All these functions have a similar syntax:

  • The first argument to all these functions is always a data frame
  • Columns can be referred directly using bare variable names (i.e., without using $)
  • These functions do not modify the original data itself, i.e., they don't have side effects. Hence, the results should always be saved to an object.

We will use the built-in mtcars dataset to explore dplyr's single table verbs. Before converting the type of mtcars to tbl_df (since it makes printing cleaner), we add the rownames of the dataset as a column using rownames_to_column function from the tibble package.

library(dplyr) # This documentation was written using version 0.5.0

mtcars_tbl <- as_data_frame(tibble::rownames_to_column(mtcars, "cars"))

# examine the structure of data
head(mtcars_tbl)

# A tibble: 6 x 12
#               cars   mpg   cyl  disp    hp  drat    wt  qsec    vs    am  gear  carb
#              <chr> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl>
#1         Mazda RX4  21.0     6   160   110  3.90 2.620 16.46     0     1     4     4
#2     Mazda RX4 Wag  21.0     6   160   110  3.90 2.875 17.02     0     1     4     4
#3        Datsun 710  22.8     4   108    93  3.85 2.320 18.61     1     1     4     1
#4    Hornet 4 Drive  21.4     6   258   110  3.08 3.215 19.44     1     0     3     1
#5 Hornet Sportabout  18.7     8   360   175  3.15 3.440 17.02     0     0     3     2
#6           Valiant  18.1     6   225   105  2.76 3.460 20.22     1     0     3     1

filter

filter helps subset rows that match certain criteria. The first argument is the name of the data.frame and the second (and subsequent) arguments are the criteria that filter the data (these criteria should evaluate to either TRUE or FALSE)

Subset all cars that have 4 cylinders - cyl:

filter(mtcars_tbl, cyl == 4) 

# A tibble: 11 x 12
#             cars   mpg   cyl  disp    hp  drat    wt  qsec    vs    am  gear  carb
#            <chr> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl>
#1      Datsun 710  22.8     4 108.0    93  3.85 2.320 18.61     1     1     4     1
#2       Merc 240D  24.4     4 146.7    62  3.69 3.190 20.00     1     0     4     2
#3        Merc 230  22.8     4 140.8    95  3.92 3.150 22.90     1     0     4     2
#4        Fiat 128  32.4     4  78.7    66  4.08 2.200 19.47     1     1     4     1
#5     Honda Civic  30.4     4  75.7    52  4.93 1.615 18.52     1     1     4     2
# ... with 6 more rows

We can pass multiple criteria separated by a comma. To subset the cars which have either 4 or 6 cylinders - cyl and have 5 gears - gear:

filter(mtcars_tbl, cyl == 4 | cyl == 6, gear == 5)

# A tibble: 3 x 12
#           cars   mpg   cyl  disp    hp  drat    wt  qsec    vs    am  gear  carb
#          <chr> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl>
#1 Porsche 914-2  26.0     4 120.3    91  4.43 2.140  16.7     0     1     5     2
#2  Lotus Europa  30.4     4  95.1   113  3.77 1.513  16.9     1     1     5     2
#3  Ferrari Dino  19.7     6 145.0   175  3.62 2.770  15.5     0     1     5     6

filter selects rows based on criteria, to select rows by position, use slice. slice takes only 2 arguments: the first one is a data.frame and the second is integer row values.

To select rows 6 through 9:

slice(mtcars_tbl, 6:9)

# A tibble: 4 x 12
#        cars   mpg   cyl  disp    hp  drat    wt  qsec    vs    am  gear  carb
#       <chr> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl>
#1    Valiant  18.1     6 225.0   105  2.76  3.46 20.22     1     0     3     1
#2 Duster 360  14.3     8 360.0   245  3.21  3.57 15.84     0     0     3     4
#3  Merc 240D  24.4     4 146.7    62  3.69  3.19 20.00     1     0     4     2
#4   Merc 230  22.8     4 140.8    95  3.92  3.15 22.90     1     0     4     2

Or:

slice(mtcars_tbl, -c(1:5, 10:n())) 

This results in the same output as slice(mtcars_tbl, 6:9)

n() represents the number of observations in the current group

arrange

arrange is used to sort the data by a specified variable(s). Just like the previous verb (and all other functions in dplyr), the first argument is a data.frame, and consequent arguments are used to sort the data. If more than one variable is passed, the data is first sorted by the first variable, and then by the second variable, and so on..

To order the data by horsepower - hp

arrange(mtcars_tbl, hp) 

# A tibble: 32 x 12
#             cars   mpg   cyl  disp    hp  drat    wt  qsec    vs    am  gear  carb
#            <chr> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl>
#1     Honda Civic  30.4     4  75.7    52  4.93 1.615 18.52     1     1     4     2
#2       Merc 240D  24.4     4 146.7    62  3.69 3.190 20.00     1     0     4     2
#3  Toyota Corolla  33.9     4  71.1    65  4.22 1.835 19.90     1     1     4     1
#4        Fiat 128  32.4     4  78.7    66  4.08 2.200 19.47     1     1     4     1
#5       Fiat X1-9  27.3     4  79.0    66  4.08 1.935 18.90     1     1     4     1
#6   Porsche 914-2  26.0     4 120.3    91  4.43 2.140 16.70     0     1     5     2
# ... with 26 more rows

To arrange the data by miles per gallon - mpg in descending order, followed by number of cylinders - cyl:

arrange(mtcars_tbl, desc(mpg), cyl)

# A tibble: 32 x 12
#             cars   mpg   cyl  disp    hp  drat    wt  qsec    vs    am  gear  carb
#            <chr> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl>
#1  Toyota Corolla  33.9     4  71.1    65  4.22 1.835 19.90     1     1     4     1
#2        Fiat 128  32.4     4  78.7    66  4.08 2.200 19.47     1     1     4     1
#3     Honda Civic  30.4     4  75.7    52  4.93 1.615 18.52     1     1     4     2
#4    Lotus Europa  30.4     4  95.1   113  3.77 1.513 16.90     1     1     5     2
#5       Fiat X1-9  27.3     4  79.0    66  4.08 1.935 18.90     1     1     4     1
#6   Porsche 914-2  26.0     4 120.3    91  4.43 2.140 16.70     0     1     5     2
# ... with 26 more rows

select

select is used to select only a subset of variables. To select only mpg, disp, wt, qsec, and vs from mtcars_tbl:

select(mtcars_tbl, mpg, disp, wt, qsec, vs)

# A tibble: 32 x 5
#     mpg  disp    wt  qsec    vs
#   <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl>
#1   21.0 160.0 2.620 16.46     0
#2   21.0 160.0 2.875 17.02     0
#3   22.8 108.0 2.320 18.61     1
#4   21.4 258.0 3.215 19.44     1
#5   18.7 360.0 3.440 17.02     0
#6   18.1 225.0 3.460 20.22     1
# ... with 26 more rows

: notation can be used to select consecutive columns. To select columns from cars through disp and vs through carb:

select(mtcars_tbl, cars:disp, vs:carb)

# A tibble: 32 x 8
#                cars   mpg   cyl  disp    vs    am  gear  carb
#               <chr> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl>
#1          Mazda RX4  21.0     6 160.0     0     1     4     4
#2      Mazda RX4 Wag  21.0     6 160.0     0     1     4     4
#3         Datsun 710  22.8     4 108.0     1     1     4     1
#4     Hornet 4 Drive  21.4     6 258.0     1     0     3     1
#5  Hornet Sportabout  18.7     8 360.0     0     0     3     2
#6            Valiant  18.1     6 225.0     1     0     3     1
# ... with 26 more rows

or select(mtcars_tbl, -(hp:qsec))

For datasets that contain several columns, it can be tedious to select several columns by name. To make life easier, there are a number of helper functions (such as starts_with(), ends_with(), contains(), matches(), num_range(), one_of(), and everything()) that can be used in select. To learn more about how to use them, see ?select_helpers and ?select.

Note: While referring to columns directly in select(), we use bare column names, but quotes should be used while referring to columns in helper functions.

To rename columns while selecting:

select(mtcars_tbl, cylinders = cyl, displacement = disp) 

# A tibble: 32 x 2
#   cylinders displacement
#       <dbl>        <dbl>
#1          6        160.0
#2          6        160.0
#3          4        108.0
#4          6        258.0
#5          8        360.0
#6          6        225.0
# ... with 26 more rows

As expected, this drops all other variables.

To rename columns without dropping other variables, use rename:

rename(mtcars_tbl, cylinders = cyl, displacement = disp)

# A tibble: 32 x 12
#                cars   mpg cylinders displacement    hp  drat    wt  qsec    vs
#               <chr> <dbl>     <dbl>        <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl>
#1          Mazda RX4  21.0         6        160.0   110  3.90 2.620 16.46     0
#2      Mazda RX4 Wag  21.0         6        160.0   110  3.90 2.875 17.02     0
#3         Datsun 710  22.8         4        108.0    93  3.85 2.320 18.61     1
#4     Hornet 4 Drive  21.4         6        258.0   110  3.08 3.215 19.44     1
#5  Hornet Sportabout  18.7         8        360.0   175  3.15 3.440 17.02     0
#6            Valiant  18.1         6        225.0   105  2.76 3.460 20.22     1
# ... with 26 more rows, and 3 more variables: am <dbl>, gear <dbl>, carb <dbl>

mutate

mutate can be used to add new columns to the data. Like all other functions in dplyr, mutate doesn't add the newly created columns to the original data. Columns are added at the end of the data.frame.

mutate(mtcars_tbl, weight_ton = wt/2, weight_pounds = weight_ton * 2000)

# A tibble: 32 x 14
#                cars   mpg   cyl  disp    hp  drat    wt  qsec    vs    am  gear  carb weight_ton weight_pounds
#               <chr> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl>      <dbl>         <dbl>
#1          Mazda RX4  21.0     6 160.0   110  3.90 2.620 16.46     0     1     4     4     1.3100          2620
#2      Mazda RX4 Wag  21.0     6 160.0   110  3.90 2.875 17.02     0     1     4     4     1.4375          2875
#3         Datsun 710  22.8     4 108.0    93  3.85 2.320 18.61     1     1     4     1     1.1600          2320
#4     Hornet 4 Drive  21.4     6 258.0   110  3.08 3.215 19.44     1     0     3     1     1.6075          3215
#5  Hornet Sportabout  18.7     8 360.0   175  3.15 3.440 17.02     0     0     3     2     1.7200          3440
#6            Valiant  18.1     6 225.0   105  2.76 3.460 20.22     1     0     3     1     1.7300          3460
# ... with 26 more rows

Note the use of weight_ton while creating weight_pounds. Unlike base R, mutate allows us to refer to columns that we just created to be used for a subsequent operation.

To retain only the newly created columns, use transmute instead of mutate:

transmute(mtcars_tbl, weight_ton = wt/2, weight_pounds = weight_ton * 2000)

# A tibble: 32 x 2
#   weight_ton weight_pounds
#        <dbl>         <dbl>
#1      1.3100          2620
#2      1.4375          2875
#3      1.1600          2320
#4      1.6075          3215
#5      1.7200          3440
#6      1.7300          3460
# ... with 26 more rows

summarise

summarise calculates summary statistics of variables by collapsing multiple values to a single value. It can calculate multiple statistics and we can name these summary columns in the same statement.

To calculate the mean and standard deviation of mpg and disp of all cars in the dataset:

summarise(mtcars_tbl, mean_mpg = mean(mpg), sd_mpg = sd(mpg), 
          mean_disp = mean(disp), sd_disp = sd(disp))

# A tibble: 1 x 4
#  mean_mpg   sd_mpg mean_disp  sd_disp
#     <dbl>    <dbl>     <dbl>    <dbl>
#1 20.09062 6.026948  230.7219 123.9387

group_by

group_by can be used to perform group wise operations on data. When the verbs defined above are applied on this grouped data, they are automatically applied to each group separately.

To find mean and sd of mpg by cyl:

by_cyl <- group_by(mtcars_tbl, cyl)
summarise(by_cyl, mean_mpg = mean(mpg), sd_mpg = sd(mpg))


# A tibble: 3 x 3
#    cyl mean_mpg   sd_mpg
#  <dbl>    <dbl>    <dbl>
#1     4 26.66364 4.509828
#2     6 19.74286 1.453567
#3     8 15.10000 2.560048

Putting it all togther

We select columns from cars through hp and gear, order the rows by cyl and from highest to lowest mpg, group the data by gear, and finally subset only those cars have mpg > 20 and hp > 75

selected <- select(mtcars_tbl, cars:hp, gear)
ordered <- arrange(selected, cyl, desc(mpg))
by_cyl <- group_by(ordered, gear)
filter(by_cyl, mpg > 20, hp > 75)

Source: local data frame [9 x 6]
Groups: gear [3]

#            cars   mpg   cyl  disp    hp  gear
#           <chr> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl>
#1   Lotus Europa  30.4     4  95.1   113     5
#2  Porsche 914-2  26.0     4 120.3    91     5
#3     Datsun 710  22.8     4 108.0    93     4
#4       Merc 230  22.8     4 140.8    95     4
#5  Toyota Corona  21.5     4 120.1    97     3
# ... with 4 more rows

Maybe we are not interested the intermediate results, we can achieve the same result as above by wrapping the function calls:

filter(
    group_by(
        arrange(
            select(
                mtcars_tbl, cars:hp
            ), cyl, desc(mpg)
        ), cyl   
    ),mpg > 20, hp > 75 
)

This can be a little difficult to read. So, dplyr operations can be chained using the pipe %>% operator. The above code transalates to:

mtcars_tbl %>% 
    select(cars:hp) %>% 
    arrange(cyl, desc(mpg)) %>%
    group_by(cyl) %>% 
    filter(mpg > 20, hp > 75) 

summarise multiple columns

dplyr provides summarise_all() to apply functions to all (non-grouping) columns.

To find the number of distinct values for each column:

mtcars_tbl %>% 
    summarise_all(n_distinct)

# A tibble: 1 x 12
#   cars   mpg   cyl  disp    hp  drat    wt  qsec    vs    am  gear  carb
#  <int> <int> <int> <int> <int> <int> <int> <int> <int> <int> <int> <int>
#1    32    25     3    27    22    22    29    30     2     2     3     6

To find the number of distinct values for each column by cyl:

mtcars_tbl %>% 
    group_by(cyl) %>% 
    summarise_all(n_distinct)

# A tibble: 3 x 12
#    cyl  cars   mpg  disp    hp  drat    wt  qsec    vs    am  gear  carb
#  <dbl> <int> <int> <int> <int> <int> <int> <int> <int> <int> <int> <int>
#1     4    11     9    11    10    10    11    11     2     2     3     2
#2     6     7     6     5     4     5     6     7     2     2     3     3
#3     8    14    12    11     9    11    13    14     1     2     2     4

Note that we just had to add the group_by statement and the rest of the code is the same. The output now consists of three rows - one for each unique value of cyl.

To summarise specific multiple columns, use summarise_at

mtcars_tbl %>% 
    group_by(cyl) %>% 
    summarise_at(c("mpg", "disp", "hp"), mean)

# A tibble: 3 x 4
#    cyl      mpg     disp        hp
#  <dbl>    <dbl>    <dbl>     <dbl>
#1     4 26.66364 105.1364  82.63636
#2     6 19.74286 183.3143 122.28571
#3     8 15.10000 353.1000 209.21429

helper functions (?select_helpers) can be used in place of column names to select specific columns

To apply multiple functions, either pass the function names as a character vector:

mtcars_tbl %>% 
    group_by(cyl) %>% 
    summarise_at(c("mpg", "disp", "hp"), 
                 c("mean", "sd"))

or wrap them inside funs:

mtcars_tbl %>% 
    group_by(cyl) %>% 
    summarise_at(c("mpg", "disp", "hp"), 
                 funs(mean, sd))

# A tibble: 3 x 7
#    cyl mpg_mean disp_mean   hp_mean   mpg_sd  disp_sd    hp_sd
#  <dbl>    <dbl>     <dbl>     <dbl>    <dbl>    <dbl>    <dbl>
#1     4 26.66364  105.1364  82.63636 4.509828 26.87159 20.93453
#2     6 19.74286  183.3143 122.28571 1.453567 41.56246 24.26049
#3     8 15.10000  353.1000 209.21429 2.560048 67.77132 50.97689

Column names are now be appended with function names to keep them distinct. In order to change this, pass the name to be appended with the function:

mtcars_tbl %>% 
    group_by(cyl) %>% 
    summarise_at(c("mpg", "disp", "hp"), 
                 c(Mean = "mean", SD = "sd"))

mtcars_tbl %>% 
    group_by(cyl) %>% 
    summarise_at(c("mpg", "disp", "hp"), 
                 funs(Mean = mean, SD = sd))


# A tibble: 3 x 7
#    cyl mpg_Mean disp_Mean   hp_Mean   mpg_SD  disp_SD    hp_SD
#  <dbl>    <dbl>     <dbl>     <dbl>    <dbl>    <dbl>    <dbl>
#1     4 26.66364  105.1364  82.63636 4.509828 26.87159 20.93453
#2     6 19.74286  183.3143 122.28571 1.453567 41.56246 24.26049
#3     8 15.10000  353.1000 209.21429 2.560048 67.77132 50.97689

To select columns conditionally, use summarise_if:

Take the mean of all columns that are numeric grouped by cyl:

mtcars_tbl %>% 
    group_by(cyl) %>% 
    summarise_if(is.numeric, mean) 

# A tibble: 3 x 11
#    cyl      mpg     disp        hp     drat       wt     qsec
#  <dbl>    <dbl>    <dbl>     <dbl>    <dbl>    <dbl>    <dbl>
#1     4 26.66364 105.1364  82.63636 4.070909 2.285727 19.13727
#2     6 19.74286 183.3143 122.28571 3.585714 3.117143 17.97714
#3     8 15.10000 353.1000 209.21429 3.229286 3.999214 16.77214
# ... with 4 more variables: vs <dbl>, am <dbl>, gear <dbl>,
#   carb <dbl>

However, some variables are discrete, and mean of these variables doesn't make sense.

To take the mean of only continuous variables by cyl:

mtcars_tbl %>% 
    group_by(cyl) %>% 
    summarise_if(function(x) is.numeric(x) & n_distinct(x) > 6, mean)

# A tibble: 3 x 7
#    cyl      mpg     disp        hp     drat       wt     qsec
#  <dbl>    <dbl>    <dbl>     <dbl>    <dbl>    <dbl>    <dbl>
#1     4 26.66364 105.1364  82.63636 4.070909 2.285727 19.13727
#2     6 19.74286 183.3143 122.28571 3.585714 3.117143 17.97714
#3     8 15.10000 353.1000 209.21429 3.229286 3.999214 16.77214

Examples of NSE and string variables in dpylr

dplyr uses Non-Standard Evaluation(NSE), which is why we normally can use the variable names without quotes. However, sometimes during the data pipeline, we need to get our variable names from other sources such as a Shiny selection box. In case of functions like select, we can just use select_ to use a string variable to select

variable1 <- "Sepal.Length"
variable2 <- "Sepal.Width"
iris %>%
select_(variable1, variable2) %>%
head(n=5)
#  Sepal.Length Sepal.Width
#  1          5.1         3.5
#  2          4.9         3.0
#  3          4.7         3.2
#  4          4.6         3.1
#  5          5.0         3.6

But if we want to use other features such as summarize or filter we need to use interp function from lazyeval package

variable1 <- "Sepal.Length"
variable2 <- "Sepal.Width"
variable3 <- "Species"
iris %>%
select_(variable1, variable2, variable3) %>%
group_by_(variable3) %>%
summarize_(mean1 = lazyeval::interp(~mean(var), var = as.name(variable1)), mean2 = lazyeval::interp(~mean(var), var = as.name(variable2)))
#      Species mean1 mean2
#       <fctr> <dbl> <dbl>
# 1     setosa 5.006 3.428
# 2 versicolor 5.936 2.770
# 3  virginica 6.588 2.974

Subset Observation (Rows)

dplyr::filter() - Select a subset of rows in a data frame that meet a logical criteria:

dplyr::filter(iris,Sepal.Length>7)
#       Sepal.Length Sepal.Width Petal.Length Petal.Width   Species
#    1           7.1         3.0          5.9         2.1 virginica
#    2           7.6         3.0          6.6         2.1 virginica
#    3           7.3         2.9          6.3         1.8 virginica
#    4           7.2         3.6          6.1         2.5 virginica
#    5           7.7         3.8          6.7         2.2 virginica
#    6           7.7         2.6          6.9         2.3 virginica
#    7           7.7         2.8          6.7         2.0 virginica
#    8           7.2         3.2          6.0         1.8 virginica
#    9           7.2         3.0          5.8         1.6 virginica
#    10          7.4         2.8          6.1         1.9 virginica
#    11          7.9         3.8          6.4         2.0 virginica
#    12          7.7         3.0          6.1         2.3 virginica

dplyr::distinct() - Remove duplicate rows:

distinct(iris, Sepal.Length, .keep_all = TRUE)
#       Sepal.Length Sepal.Width Petal.Length Petal.Width    Species
#    1           5.1         3.5          1.4         0.2     setosa
#    2           4.9         3.0          1.4         0.2     setosa
#    3           4.7         3.2          1.3         0.2     setosa
#    4           4.6         3.1          1.5         0.2     setosa
#    5           5.0         3.6          1.4         0.2     setosa
#    6           5.4         3.9          1.7         0.4     setosa
#    7           4.4         2.9          1.4         0.2     setosa
#    8           4.8         3.4          1.6         0.2     setosa
#    9           4.3         3.0          1.1         0.1     setosa
#   10          5.8         4.0          1.2         0.2     setosa
#   11          5.7         4.4          1.5         0.4     setosa
#   12          5.2         3.5          1.5         0.2     setosa
#   13          5.5         4.2          1.4         0.2     setosa
#   14          4.5         2.3          1.3         0.3     setosa
#   15          5.3         3.7          1.5         0.2     setosa
#   16          7.0         3.2          4.7         1.4 versicolor
#   17          6.4         3.2          4.5         1.5 versicolor
#   18          6.9         3.1          4.9         1.5 versicolor
#   19          6.5         2.8          4.6         1.5 versicolor
#   20          6.3         3.3          4.7         1.6 versicolor
#   21          6.6         2.9          4.6         1.3 versicolor
#   22          5.9         3.0          4.2         1.5 versicolor
#   23          6.0         2.2          4.0         1.0 versicolor
#   24          6.1         2.9          4.7         1.4 versicolor
#   25          5.6         2.9          3.6         1.3 versicolor
#   26          6.7         3.1          4.4         1.4 versicolor
#   27          6.2         2.2          4.5         1.5 versicolor
#   28          6.8         2.8          4.8         1.4 versicolor
#   29          7.1         3.0          5.9         2.1  virginica
#   30          7.6         3.0          6.6         2.1  virginica
#   31          7.3         2.9          6.3         1.8  virginica
#   32          7.2         3.6          6.1         2.5  virginica
#   33          7.7         3.8          6.7         2.2  virginica
#   34          7.4         2.8          6.1         1.9  virginica
#   35          7.9         3.8          6.4         2.0  virginica


2016-07-27
2017-05-01
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